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More Disproof Of The Existence Of God - by John Prytz

While it is not possible to absolutelyprove that God (or any other deity for that matter of which there are thousandspostulated) does not exist, any more than it is possible to absolutely provethat orbiting teapots, pixies, extraterrestrials, demons and ghosts don'texist, the actual existence of God can be shown to be so unlikely as to be'proof' beyond a reasonable doubt. 


Arguments For God's Existence Debunked:


Theists claim about eight argumentsshowing that God exists, but each can be refuted. For the record the eightpositive arguments are:


* The Kalam Cosmological Argument: Thisargument goes as follows. 1) Everything that begins to exist has a cause. 2)The Universe began to exist. 3) Therefore the Universe had a cause. 4)Therefore God done it! The problem here is that you can't just leap from stepthree to step four. There are alternative explanations. If there weren't, everycosmology text would have to start with "In the beginning,God...".  One could equallypostulate that 1) Everything that begins to exist has a cause. 2) Lightningbegins to exist. 3) Therefore lightning had a cause. 4) Therefore Thor done it!For some weird reason, theists don't buy into that sequence. [#]


* Design and Fine-Tuning for Life: Lifeexists. Life is complex. Things have to be just-so in order for life to exist.God ensured that things were just-so. However, 99.9999% of the Universe isn'tdesigned and finely-tuned for life. 99% of all species on Earth have gone theway of the Dodo and Passenger Pidgeon. Further, given the vastness and amountof real estate in the Universe, it would be surprising if chemistry andenvironmental conditions were never just right in a Goldilocks sense to produceand sustain life. Further, there are transport mechanisms in place (Panspermia)that can transport the life forms that do arise around the Universe. But evenwith respect to design and fine-tuning, there are alternative explanations,among them chance, the Simulation Hypothesis and the Multiverse Hypothesis. Soagain, it's not God done it as a default position. If God is the defaultposition, then the obvious question is who / what designed and fine-tuned theDesigner (God)? [#]


* Objective Morality: God is the author ofobjective morality. Without God there wouldn't be any objective morality.However, morality isn't objective, it's subjective. Morality depends. SometimesX is okay; sometimes X is not okay. Further, if you took God's morality andfollowed it to the letter, you'd be arrested in every country past and presentand executed in many. God is the most immoral entity ever conceived of inliterature. Quite apart from the Old Testament examples, if a human walks byand sees a child lying face down in a pond, most humans will try to rescue thechild. God will just sit back and do bugger-all. Humans tend to be way, way,way more moral than God, which isn't difficult, even for humans. Further, thereis no objective morality since no two people will agree on the morality issuesthat underlies every "what if" scenario. If morality issues were 100%objective the legal systems of this world would be clear-cut, black-and-white,yet we all know that that is not the case at all. Further again, God doesn'texplain exhibitions by non-humans of moral actions. So where did morality comefrom if not from God? The natural evolution of morality can be pretty wellsummed up by stating that I'll watch / scratch your back if you watch andscratch my back. Cooperation is in your own best and selfish interest. [#]


* Biological Information (DNA; alsoconsciousness, free will, intentionality, etc.): Life is complex, thereforeGod. Well not really. Non-life is just chemistry. Life is just chemistry. Muchof life's essential chemistry is actually represented by non-life chemistry -salt, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, urea, various sugars, vitamins andminerals, etc. There are no elementary particles and atoms found in life's chemistryset that aren't also part and parcel of non-living things. Life and non-lifeshare a commonality - chemistry. So non-life becomes incorporated into life,and life back into non-life. That's because chemistry, chemical reactions are atwo-way street. For example, hydrogen and oxygen into water; water into oxygenand hydrogen. Just because life's chemistry tends to be more complex chemistry(DNA, RNA, proteins, amino acids, etc.) doesn't mean it's not chemistry. Theelementary particles, atoms and molecules do NOT behave any differently justbecause they are part of a living organism instead of being part of anon-living structure.


Secondly, any trait associated with lifecan also be found in non-living things, examples from metabolism to reproductionto awareness. Can consciousness only come from consciousness? Now while youhave consciousness, what created you didn't have consciousness, that it the eggand the sperm that created you. So, consciousness develops in organismsnaturally. And if one wishes to invoke Panpsychism, then everything, evenfundamental particles have consciousness. 


Finally, there is just such a naturalmechanism within nature, within the sciences, even within human society, asemergent phenomena. Simple things that do not have a property have thatproperty when they link together and combine. Here's a simple example: hydrogendioxide (a water molecule) isn't in itself wet, isn't a drop of water, a cubeof ice, a humid day, or a cloud / fog. But a lot of water molecules collectivelyare wet, can form a drop of water, an ice cube, produce a humid day, and formclouds / fog. One human does not a human society make, but gather enough humanstogether and there you have a human society.


* Jesus: The prophecies concerning thecoming of Jesus; the virgin birth of Jesus; the miracles attributed to Jesus;the death and resurrection of Jesus; the empty tomb; all of the witnesses to aresurrected Jesus; the rise of Christianity in the wake of all of that allproves that Jesus was a actual Son of God and therefore God must exist. Alas,not one supernatural thing attributed to Jesus can be independently verifiedoutside of the Biblical sources. Religions (and numerous religiously-themedcults) can arise out of virtually nothing - Scientology and Mormonism forexample. Finally, the arguments for Jesus can't be all that compelling ifJudaism and Islam don't accept the evidence for Jesus, and that equally appliesto the major Eastern / Asian religions. Further, it has been noted that 'modern'humans (Homo sapiens) existed for a minimum of about 100,000 years(give-or-take) or thereabouts before God started strutting His stuff down onTerra Firma (I'm totally ignoring the Adam and Eve tall tale here). So, humansexisted for a very, very, very long time in the total absence of God and that'seven more the case when it comes to knowledge of Jesus. So why the gap of ahundred thousand years before Jesus appears on the scene? Well the nonsenseargument that theists offer up is that that gap between the first 'modern'human and Jesus didn't amount to a hill of beans in terms of the overall humanpopulation. Most humans who have ever lived and will live will have heard aboutJesus. Still, it makes little sense why God couldn't have ensured that those unfortunatehumans who lived before Jesus were somehow enlightened. I mean, according totheists, with God, all things are possible. [#]  


* Personal Experience of God: Personalspiritual experiences of God are not evidence for the existence of God. Firstly,personal experiences are just that - personal. Your personal experiences aren'texperienced by anyone else. Further, there are numerous physiological andpsychological causes behind why people experience all manner of imaginarythings. Some people hallucinate; some people are delusional. The peopleconcerned aren't even aware of the illusions they experience which are way,way, way more wide-ranging than just experiencing God. Intense personal evenspiritual experiences include alien abductions, witnessing ghosts, talking withApollo or dozens of other deities or entities, or even in like my case aone-off close encounters experience with telepathic birds. But just having avery personal and spiritually moving hallucination doesn't of necessity makeyou mentally ill. [#]


* Something Rather Than Nothing: Ah, theeternal question, why is there something rather than nothing? God done it -created something out of nothing. Okay, why is there a God instead of nothing?Where did God come from? [#]


* If God is Possible Then God Exists:There has to exist the most perfect being possible. There is no being moreperfect than God. Therefore God must exist not only in this world but in allpossible worlds. Of course the fallacy here is that applies to anything. Therehas to exist the most perfect possible dragon or unicorn or pixie or island orhurricane or teapot. Alas, just because you can imagine something doesn't makeit so. Mental reality doesn't of necessity mean a physical reality equivalent.[#]


However, in addition to the above, there is one argumentfor the existence of God that I'm really getting more than just a bit tired ofhearing and that is that the proof of God's existence is just because of life,the Universe and absolutely everything. I mean, according to this argument,just look at the moon and the stars and sunsets and the sky and the rainbow andthe trees and the flowers and the birds (and no doubt the poison ivy; thesmallpox virus; the bubonic plague (Black Death); the flu; flesh-eating bacteria;malaria; sexually transmitted diseases (AIDS); rabies; Ebola; parasitic worms;poisonous snakes, spiders, jellyfish and scorpions; man-eating sharks;radioactivity; lightning strikes, landslides; earthquakes; tsunamis; volcanoes;blizzards; hurricanes; tornadoes; and even the odd supernova as well), etc.Doesn't all of that prove God exists? No, it doesn't. Further, it doesn't provethat Odin exists or that Isis exists or that Apollo and Aphrodite existseither. For that matter, that's not proof of the existence of Pixies or even ofthe Flying Spaghetti Monster. Hundreds of religions have come up with hundredsof creator deities who - according to those True Believers - equally explainslife, the Universe and absolutely everything. If you want the best explanationfor whodunit, try Mother Nature!


What Do Atheists Believe According toTheists?


Theists assert that atheists claim insteadthat nothing produces everything; non-life produces life; randomness producesfine-tuning / design; chaos produces information; unconsciousness producesconsciousness; and non-reason produces reason. Since these are all impossibleclaims, that proves that God done it. It's time for a closer look.


* Nothing Produces Everything: Actuallythis is also the theist's position or what theists claim. God, the uncreatedcreator created life, the Universe and everything out of absolutely nothing. Ofcourse what theists claim that atheist’s claim is that nothing (not even a Godor deity of any kind) produced something. While I can't speak for otheratheists, that's not my position. My reasoning is based on the First Law ofThermodynamics which includes the observation that matter / energy can neitherbe created nor destroyed. That being the case, something (matter / energy) hasalways existed and so a something material morphed / created our Universe. It'sa case of something from something. Of course that produces an infinite regressbut there's nothing impossible about the concept or the reality of an infinity. 


* Non-Life Produces Life: Both life andnon-life are made up of the exact same fundamental particles (quarks andelectrons) and elements. So there's no theoretical or even practical reason whynon-life can't become life given enough time, proper environmental conditionsand sufficient real estate. Fortunately, the Universe accommodates this trilogy/ trinity of conditions. As the common saying / observation goes, and it's atruism, is that we (life) is just derived from star-stuff. Just because we (scientists)don't know the precise details of the ways and means this can be accomplished -and there are no doubt several plausible ways - doesn't mean that therefore Goddone it. Further it was once thought that organic and bio-chemicals part andparcel of living things couldn't be synthesized outside of the bodies of thoseliving things. Wrong!


* Randomness Produces Fine-Tuning /Design: The quantum mantra states that anything that can happen, will happen,given enough time. Random happenings will bring oxygen and hydrogen atomstogether to form water. Random weather patters will sometimes causetemperatures to fall below zero degrees (Centigrade) and the water turns intosnowflakes or ice crystals that look really fine-tuned and designed. Of coursenot all of the laws, principles and relationships in the physical scienceproduce randomness. You can't have just any kind of atom or molecule orchemical reaction. 


* Chaos Produces Information: That'spretty much in the same category as randomness and design / fine-tuning.


* Unconsciousness Produces Consciousness:That's in the same category as non-life producing life.


* Non-Reason Produces Reason: Ifnon-reason equates to non-life / randomness / chaos and reason equates to life/ design / information, then the issue has already been addressed.


In conclusion, probably the four bestarguments against the existence of the Christian God is that if you had beenborn and raised in a different culture / society then you would have believedwith equal conviction in some other deity or deities. A Christian is an atheistwith respect to non-Christian religions; true believers within non-Christianreligions are all atheists with respect to Christianity. Real atheists arenon-believers in BOTH Christian religions and non-Christian religions. Not allreligions / deities can be true but all can be false.


The second reason is that there are very,very, very good reasons why humans would create a God (or other deities) in ourimage. Firstly a need for agency to explain what we can't explain. Secondly,the need for an agent to get us into an afterlife which we tend to desire.Thirdly, the need to feel special, that a deity created the Universe just forlittle old us and who wants a personal experience with us. Lastly, we arehardwired to tell stories - billions of billions of stories / tall tales. Weare such innate storytellers that we even tell stories to ourselves when wesleep - our dreams. 


Thirdly, the most central reason for the collectivebelief in God is a purely economic one. The entire concept of God has been andis today a multi-billion dollar enterprise. So if one eliminates God (andcompany) from the world scene, you'd put a rather large dent in the economicengine that drives the world. So vested interests rule, and so rule that Godstays relevant - for purely economic reasons.


Fourthly, we have the hiddenness problem. It would seem that God, assuming a God of course, went to a lotof time and trouble, effort and energy, to establish His existence to a rathertiny band of quasi-illiterate goat / sheep herders in a rather restrictedgeographical region of the world thousands of years ago. Alas, there's noevidence that survives all of His revelations regarding His existence. So, ifGod wants to obtain the faith of the multitudes in this more modern, global,and scientific age, He really needs to update His public relations andadvertise His brand in such a way that there is no doubt as to His existence.Surely it is not logical to expect the multitudes thousands of yearsafter-the-fact to have the same True Faith and Belief systems in place as didthose semi-illiterate goat and sheep herders, based on evidence available tothem then but which has evaporated in the fullness of time and is no longeravailable. So, if God exists, then yes, I'd expect Him to provide an update asto what He's been up to for the last 3000+ years and thus instantly convertover seven billion people into accepting Him as the One True God. It shouldn'tbe difficult. That God remains hidden speaks volumes IMHO.


Inconclusion, while no single point proves beyond a reasonable doubt that Goddoesn't exist, when taken collectively, as a package deal, then I think theChristian theists need to go back to the drawing board or perhaps consider a careerchange to something more productive.


[#]These seven arguments form the absolute core of William Lane Craig's argumentsas to why God exists.

Science librarian; retired.

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